Beware: 28 Pitfalls to Avoid! (Part 2)

Here are pitfalls five through eight to avoid. Nine to 12 will be given next week. Hopefully these will help you polish your writing.

  1. Watch for Monotonous Sentences

Have you ever gone to a boring lecture where the speaker droned on in a monotone? Perhaps it was the lecturer’s tone that put you to sleep. Since your readers can’t hear you, change your tone by varying the length of your sentences. Also vary the structure of your sentences.

  1. Watch for Unclear Material

Sentences that don’t flow well can be detected by reading them aloud. Also, have someone else read your manuscript and edit it. I cannot emphasize enough the importance of belonging to a critique group. Form one with local writers in your area or other writers online and meet regularly.

  1. Watch for Incongruities

If you are writing a historical story set during World War II, don’t have the characters watch television. It wasn’t invented yet. Also, many words came into our vocabulary after World War II. Check to see when a word came into use if there is any doubt in your mind.

  1. Watch for Loose Ends

Did you drop a character in your story? If you edit out a character or a piece of furniture, don’t let it pop up later. People who aren’t as close to your story as you are will be able to see loose ends better than you will.

 

Beware: 28 Pitfalls to Avoid! (Part 1)

When you critique the first draft of your manuscript, watch for the following pitfalls:

  1. Watch for Impractical Vocabulary

Don’t talk down to your readers, and don’t talk above their heads. Readers Digest and Guideposts are written on a sixth-grade level. Keep your writing on a parallel level with your readers. Use “ten cent” words rather than ones not commonly used in conversation. You can express profound thoughts and still write in a clear manner.

  1. Watch for Unnecessary Words

Eliminate any words, sentences, or paragraphs that don’t further your story line. Go through your manuscript word-by-word and ask yourself, “What will happen if I leave that out? If the answer is “nothing” then cut it.

  1.  Watch for Unnatural Speech

Your words should flow in a conversational manner as if you were sitting at your dining room table having a cup of tea with a friend. Make your words sound natural. You will be able to do this with practice and lots of rewriting.

  1. Watch for Long, Run-on Sentences

If your readers drown in your sentences, they will feel lost. Keep your writing simple. That doesn’t mean the content is simple, but the style is. When a sentence is shorter, it usually becomes stronger. Try to keep your sentences under twenty-five words.

Pitfalls 5-8 will be given next week.

Interviewing (Part 11)

Another nice thing about writing from interviews is it eliminates writer’s block. It’s not just you and a blank piece of paper or a blank computer screen when you sit down to write. It’s you, a mound of notes, and a recorder.

The realm of manuscripts that can be written from interviews is unlimited. In 1990 I went to Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, India, and the Philippines to obtain information for my books written from interviews. But don’t forget that your best story may be in your own backyard, in your church, in your local newspaper, or in your head.

Many people have fascinating stories to tell, but they are unable to write their own stories. You can come beside them and write their stories to encourage others and bring the readers closer to the Lord.

This concludes the series on interviewing.

Interviewing (Part 10)

Some publications will want a query letter before you send your article. Here is a sample query letter:

                                          Susie Writer

                                     1 Longhand Lane

                                    Beach City CA 90000

                                           310- 555-1212

                                   Susiewriter@aol.com

June 1, 2017

 

Mr. Jerry Joyful, Acquisitions Editor

Slickcover Magazine

1000 Everprint Street

Anytown IL 60000

 

Dear Mr. Joyful:

In April, I attended the Orange County Christian Writers Conference where I met your assistant editor, Bill E. Buyer. He suggested that I query you with my idea for a 1500-word article that I feel will fit your guidelines.

For the past five years, I have volunteered in a home for unwed mothers. One sixteen year old named Sara has given me permission to write her story under a pseudonym. I feel the choices she made will help other young girls to make the right decisions regarding sex and marriage.

Sara became pregnant and considered abortion. Since she is only sixteen and a junior in high school, she did not feel she could adequately care for herself and a baby. A strange turn of events led to a harrowing experience that resulted in a decision for Sara to have her baby and to give him up for adoption.

The primary audience would be young teenage girls—particularly those considering sex outside of marriage. The secondary audience would be pregnant teens. Also, mothers and friends of girls going through the trauma of an unwanted pregnancy would benefit from this article.

This article is timely because today eight out of ten teenage girls are sexually active, and three out of ten will eventually become pregnant out of wedlock. Let me know if you would be willing to see my article, “Sara’s Song,” on speculation. I look forward to your response.

Yours in Him,

Susie Writer

 

 

Interviewing (Part 9)

When you have finished writing an article, I recommend allowing the person interviewed to see the final draft you plan to send to a magazine editor. But don’t let the person make unnecessary changes! Some publications will want a signed release from the person interviewed before the article is published, but I think it is good to have your own release if the magazine doesn’t require it. Now, books are different. That becomes co-authoring, and a contract is involved.

In articles, the name of the person interviewed is placed first, then “as told to” and the writer’s name. For example: “The Providential Escape” by Henry Fahman as told to Susan Titus Osborn. On leader’s guides and other pay-for-hire work, the words “prepared by” often precede the author’s name. On these kinds of projects, the author’s name usually goes inside the book or booklet, rather than on the cover. For example, Leader’s Guide for You Gotta Keep Dancin’ by Tim Hansel prepared by Susan Titus Osborn. On books, the actual author’s name is placed second after the person whose story is being told. The names are separated by “with.” For example, You Start with One, by Deo Miller with Susan Titus Osborn.

 

 

Interviewing (Part 8)

Now for the write-up of the article after your interview. Do it soon so your memory is still fresh. The colder your notes get, the less you will be able to decipher them. Plus time will dull your enthusiasm for the interviewee and the subject matter.

I take detailed notes. When I am ready to do the write-up, I transcribe my notes onto the computer. Then I listen to the digital recorder and add anything necessary that I didn’t get down on paper. I stop the recorder frequently, double checking my words for accuracy and clarity. Plus you want to be sure to capture the interviewee’s mannerisms and pet phrases

The next step is to edit, edit, edit. Trim the dialogue. Chop it to the core. Write and rewrite. Remember that the person wouldn’t need you if they could write their own story. You will have lots of material you won’t use. Ultimately, you may even have enough for two articles. I had 26 cassette tapes (this was before digital recorders)  from Deo Miller in my bag of oysters, and I was searching for the pearls that would make interesting stories for the book, You Start with One. It isn’t easy to find the pearls.

Your article must have a focus and must stay on that focus. It must include a beginning, a middle, and an end. When you reach the climax, be brief and be gone.

 

Interviewing (Part 7)

Decide whether your article is going to be written in the first person or the third person. All Guideposts articles are first person, but a number of magazines prefer third person. Study your markets before writing the actual article.

First person has more depth. You can step into the individual’s mind, heart, and eyes and tell it from the individual’s viewpoint. If you write personal experience stories from the first person viewpoint, then you have a decision to make. How important is it for your name to be on the byline? If your name does not appear, you are considered a ghostwriter.

Personally, I prefer to have my name on everything I write. I choose not to ghostwrite. I feel it is misleading to the reader if the true author’s name doesn’t appear somewhere on the work.

In articles, the name of the person interviewed is placed first, then “as told to” and the writer’s name. For example: “The Providential Escape” by Henry Fahman as told to Susan Titus Osborn. On leader’s guides and other pay-for-hire work, the words “prepared by” often precede the author’s name. On these kinds of projects, the author’s name usually goes inside the book or booklet, rather than on the cover. For example, Leader’s Guide for You Gotta Keep Dancin’ by Tim Hansel prepared by Susan Titus Osborn. On books, the actual author’s name is placed second after the person whose story is being told. The names are separated by “with.” For example, You Start with One, by Deo Miller with Susan Titus Osborn.

Interviewing (Part 6)

When interviewing your subject, ask one question at a time. Prompt the person if they draw a blank. If they are self-conscious, tell them about a similar incident in your own life. Become vulnerable. Some people don’t want bad things said about them, but our vulnerable areas help others the most. If the interviewee opens up, get permission to print the sensitive material.

If you become confused, stop and summarize what you think the person is trying to say. Know when to probe and when to back off. Interviewing is an emotional experience, and a bond is formed between you and the person. Show empathy.

When you are finished, ask if you can call the interviewee if you forgot anything. This leaves the door open if you have a question. Leave your business card, and write a thank you.

Interviewing (Part 5)

Your eye-to-eye contact is vital in the interview. Although you will take notes during the interview, rely more on your digital recorder. A tremendous amount of emotional tension takes place during an interview. Individuals often feel vulnerable and transparent once their feelings are down on paper. Be sensitive and empathetic in interviewing and in writing the article afterwards.

Assure the person that the information is confidential. You want to get the words right, particularly if you are going to quote the person. Also, you want to write in the interviewee’s style. Listen for favorite words, mannerisms, and accents. Use the educational level and culture of the person, but you never use the exact words. You can’t write like you speak. You must edit, edit, edit—whittle away the excess. You want the interviewee comfortable with your finished product.

 

Interviewing (Part 4)

Put your subject at ease during the first five minutes. Then turn on your digital recorder. Have a set of questions prepared before the interview. Here are 10 questions to use as a guide, but don’t use my ten questions as is. They would not all be used in one interview. Instead, pick the ones most suited to your interviewee, and add your own questions to the list.

 

Ten Suggested Questions for an Interview

  1. Do you have any special words you live by?
  1. Was there a time in your life when you felt closest to God?
  1. Was there a time when you felt God was far away?
  1. When did God dramatically answer prayer in your life?
  1. When did you feel most challenged?
  1. Is there an incident in your live that could benefit others?
  1. Have you ever been afraid?
  1. When was the most special time in your life?
  1. Have you ever experienced failure?
  1. What is the most vivid memory in your past?