The Use of Narrative and Exposition (Part 3)

Good Dialogue is essential to your story. Dialogue moves the action along better than any other medium. Dialogue can be used effectively in fictional stories, personal experience stories, devotionals, and anecdotes within articles and nonfiction books. Here are some tips for using authentic dialogue in your manuscripts.

Multiple Characters: When possible, have two people in your story, so they can talk to each other. If this is not possible and only one person is involved in a happening, perhaps you could relay that incident after it occurred through a telephone conversation or a chat over coffee. Staying in someone’s mind and listening to their thoughts is a boring place for the reader to be.

Tags: Be careful of the tags you use for dialogue. “He said” is better than “he articulated” or “he uttered.” After all, what is important is the information between the quotation marks, not the word used for “said.” An exception would be if you needed to show strong emotion or a certain voice tone that the words by themselves didn’t express. Examples: He shouted, he whispered.

A word of warning: you can’t smile, sigh, or laugh words. Instead of writing, “You’re cute,” he smiled, use:  “You’re cute,” he said with a boyish grin.

The Use of Narrative and Exposition (Part 2)

Good writers weave exposition subtly into the action so it doesn’t interrupt the narrative flow. Proper exposition appears to derive directly from the viewpoint character’s thoughts or memories.

In the proper blending of narrative and exposition, the author communicates information to the reader through:

  1. What the characters say,
  2. What the characters do,
  3. What the main character thinks, and
  4. What the main character remembers.

This blending is achieved by using detail, dialogue, and description—the components of the Three-D Technique.

Detail: Use the specific rather than the general.

Dialogue: Direct conversations between the characters, especially characters in conflict, reveal their personalities. Dialogue moves the story along and turns narrative into interesting conversation. Develop a different style for each character.

Description: Draw from all five senses to describe the setting and the characters. Use sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch to create a mood.

The Use of Narrative and Exposition (Part 1)

The proper use of narrative and exposition in short stories and novels is one of the keys to writing successful fiction as well as in using fictional techniques in nonfiction.

Narrative: is the objective reporting of your story, that which can be pictured visually in concrete images in the reader’s imagination. It is what the characters do in the action of the story.

Exposition: is information, often interpretive and/or subjective funneled through the viewpoint character, to shed light on the action. It includes comments, opinions, reactions, explanations, and feelings (Definitions by Carole Gift Page, used with permission).

Faulty exposition interrupts the narrative flow, shatters the illusion of reality, and embarrassingly reveals the mechanics of fiction writing just like a playwright jumping on stage and interrupting a play during a performance.

Writing Nonfiction with Fictional Techniques (Part 13)

Whether real or fictional, our characters must solve their own problems. They should get a just reward whether good or bad, but if you are writing for children, you must have a happy ending. Don’t leave the ending up to the readers. The readers should have a sense of completion and feel comfortable after finishing your article or book. Don’t leave any loose ends. A “problem solution story” is much more powerful than a “come to realize” ending.

Let’s help our readers to identify with our characters to solve their problems. We can’t tell them though, we must show them. Then they will read and see for themselves. Please keep this in mind. It is so easy to preach at them, and then you’ve lost them. Include lots of dialogue, using words that are simple and relevant today. And action helps to move the story along.

People live in the anecdotal. You can meet their real needs by meeting their felt needs. They want escape and adventure, but they need help with their problems. You can achieve both with the vehicle of fiction techniques.

This concludes the 13-part series on Writing Nonfiction with Fiction Techniques.

 

 

Writing Nonfiction with Fictional Techniques (Part 12)

When you write true stories or vignettes within nonfiction articles and books, write what you know. That means writing from your own experiences. Who are you writing about? Yourself? If you are writing your own experiences, whether as an adult or from your childhood, make sure that others will benefit from your experiences. Your story has to answer the question, “So what?” It needs to have a point that will have take-away value for the reader. Nonfiction allows you to use your own experiences, but you can couch them in fiction and change the details. We don’t have to undergo exactly what was experienced in what we want to write about, but it is vital that we feel passionately about our subject.  Often you can use other people’s true stories in your nonfiction articles and books. Having several people experience similar circumstances adds depth to your writing.

Don’t let your characters take over—real or fictional. You must know what they are going to do. That is why you write the ending right after the beginning, or at least a brief summary of what will happen. Don’t manipulate the characters either. They must be believable, even if the unbelievable is true, or you will lose your credibility with your reader.

Next week we will finish this series.

Writing Nonfiction with Fictional Techniques (Part 11)

Here is an example of a devotional that is almost entirely dialogue, taken from my book, Rest Stops for Single Moms.

The Fire

“Mom, I had to abandon my car!” My son’s voice sounded breathless on the other end of the telephone line. “Flames were jumping across the highway. Burning branches fell into the back of my convertible.”

“Are you OK?” I asked.

“Oh, Mom, I’m fine, but I’m worried about my car.”

“Tell me what happened. Maybe I can help,” I offered.

“I was on my way home from class, and I could see the fire burning out of control in the Santa Barbara hills, but it seemed far away. The freeway was blocked, so I took the old highway towards town. About halfway there, people on either side of the road had been told to evacuate their homes. Everyone was trying to leave. There was a huge traffic jam. Suddenly, flames jumped across the highway, and that’s when it happened.

Richard was talking so fast that I didn’t understand everything. “That’s when what happened?” I asked.

“My clutch cable snapped, and I couldn’t shift gears. I pulled over to the side as far as I could and had to abandon my car.”

“What did you do then?”

“I called my girlfriend to come and get me. Mom, I can’t afford to lose my car. I don’t have comprehensive insurance on it, and I’ll have to drop out for a semester if I can’t get to school.”

I knew Richard was right. Richard’s finances for his college education were extremely tight. Without his car, he’d have to leave school and obtain a full time job to earn money for a new one. I saw no alternative.

“Let’s pray about it, Richard. God knows the situation.”

I rarely pray for material possessions, and I’ve never prayed for a car before, but this time I did. “Lord, You know Richard needs that beat-up Volvo convertible to get to his college classes. Please spare it in this fire. We pray that the fire will soon be contained.”

Three days later, I received another call from Richard. “Mom, they finally let me check on my car. I caught a ride back to where I left it. The fire burned to within a hundred feet, and it’s full of ashes, but it runs. It’s in the shop now getting a new clutch cable.”

God has taught us to pray specifically. In this case, He knew how important that car was to Richard’s education. He spared the car, and I learned an important lesson. When things look bleak, when money is tight, God is there, showing His presence in the smallest details of our lives.

Writing Nonfiction with Fictional Techniques (Part 10)

We will continue discussing dialogue:

Once you have a detailed character sketch of your main character, you will know how he will react in certain instances. You will be aware of his feelings, ideas, and beliefs. His personality will come out in his speech. He will help you write the dialogue, because if you know him, you will know what he will say. As your readers gets to know your main character, they will know what the character will say, too. If your main person acts out of character, your readers will know and will feel something is wrong. Also, be careful not to contrive your character’s speech or have him preach. The readers don’t want to be talked down to—either by you or the main character. We teach our readers lessons by what the main character learns, not by lecturing them.

These suggestions also apply to the minor characters to a lesser degree. When you write a novel, the minor characters are more developed, and these points become more relevant to them. In a short story, whether true or fictional, you don’t have much room to develop more than one or two characters with any depth. Usually the readers will identify with the main character, so he becomes your vehicle for getting your message across. The most powerful way to accomplish this is through his actual spoken words.

Writing Nonfiction with Fictional Techniques (Part 9)

Dialogue

Good dialogue is essential to your story. Dialogue moves the action along better than any other medium. When possible have two people in your story, so they can talk to each other. If this is not possible and only one person is involved in a happening, perhaps you could relay that incident after it occurred through a telephone conversation or a chat over coffee. Staying in someone’s mind and listening to their thoughts is a boring place for the readers to be.

Be careful of the tags you use for dialogue. “He said” is better than “he articulated” or “he uttered.” After all, what is important is the information between the quotation marks, not the word used for “said.” An exception would be if you needed to show strong emotion or a certain voice tone that the words by themselves didn’t express. Examples: He shouted, he whispered.

The dialogue should be kept simple, natural, and conversational. However, don’t use the exact words a person would actually speak because in normal conversation, a person uses far more words than are needed. Actual speech needs to be whittled down so it is crisp and clear. Never let your characters ramble. It helps to read the dialogue out loud.

Writing Nonfiction with Fictional Techniques (Part 8)

Whether you are writing fiction or a true story, without conflict there is no story.

There are three types of conflict:

  1.  Person vs. Person
  2.  Person vs. Self
  3.  Person vs. Environment or God

A short personal experience story will only have one conflict, whereas a book will build conflict upon conflict. However, one conflict may have more than one of the three components. When you are writing a short story, limit your characters to two to four. In a devotional or short anecdote, I’d limit them to one or two. Also, only have one conflict in all short pieces. In a book, you can keep introducing complication upon complication, solving some as you go along. But remember if you solve everything before the book is finished, your readers will put it down. Why should they continue reading? Build suspense; don’t tell it all. Surprise the readers. Don’t allow them to figure out the ending before they get there. Provide an interesting twist.

Writing Nonfiction with Fictional Techniques (Part 7)

As well as painting a scene, you need to set a mood within your nonfiction piece. Is your story lighthearted? Is it somber? The mood you set will show the readers what is coming and help them to better identify with you.

This excerpt is from a story in my book, Rest Stops for Single Moms.

 

Loving Too Little, Loving Too Much

Susan Titus Osborn

 

Staring out of my hotel window on that winter’s day in Washington, DC, I watched huge chunks of ice drift lazily down the Potomac River. I rubbed my arms and shivered—partly from the cold, but mostly from the memory forming in my mind.

I recalled the morning several years before when my husband, looking tired and tense, walked into the kitchen. He sat down at the breakfast table and said, “I care about you, but I don’t love you enough to live with you anymore.”